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Durio zibethinus

SynonymsDurio acuminatissima Merr. (1926)
Common namesdurian, duren, ambetan, kadu, dulian, du-yin, thu-réén, thourièn, thurian, thu-rian, rian, sâù riêng
Ecocrop code963

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A medium-sized to tall, buttressed evergreen tree usually reaching up to 12 m in orchards and up to 25-40 m in the forest. The crown is conical and leaves simple, 8-20 cm long. The fruit is ovoid to ellipsoid with hard, conical projections on the surface, 5-30 cm long and 1.5-8 kg in weight, with a dull green to light yellowish green surface and with a strong odor. USES The fruit pulp is eaten fresh, cooked as a vegetable or in soups, made into a sauce, or processed into various products. It can be frozen, dried, fermented, salted or dried and boild with sugar. The pulp is a source of carbohydrates, and vitamins B and C. The seeds are eaten dried, roasted, fried in coconut oil, or boiled, and used in confections. Seeds are rich in proteins and carbohydrates. The rind of the fruit is dried and used as fuel. Several parts of the tree have medicinal properties. The light wood is not durable, but is used for indoor constructions and cheaper types of furniture. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Seedlings fruit after about 7-12 years and grafted trees after 4-5 years. The fruit takes 3 months to ripe. There may be two crops per year for 50 years. COMMON NAMES Durian, Dourian, Durion, Duren, Dulian, Du-yin, Herisson d'arbre, Durione, Civet fruit, Thurian, Thu-rian kaek, Thu-reen, Thourien, Ambetan, Kadu, Rian, Sau rieng. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: D. acuminatissima. Durian is a native of south-eastern Asia, particularly Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. It is strictly tropical and can be grown within the latitudinal range 18°N-S. It performs best at elevations between sea level and 800 m. In Malaysia and Thailand it is usually grown below 300 m. It needs shade when young. The tree is adapted to warm and humid growing conditions but it can tolerate 2-3 dry months. Short relatively dry spells may stimulate flowering. A sheltered site is desirable to prevent branches laden with fruit from breaking in the wind. Heavy soils may lead to root rot. Up to 50-100 fruits per tree per year or a yield of 10-18 t/ha can be expected from a good orchard. Average yields are, however, often only 3-8 t/ha.
SOURCES (D. zibethinus Murr.)
Popenoe W 1974 pp 421-425 [USE, KTMP]
Tidbury G 1976 pp 321
Joshi H 1980a pp 27 [USE]
Rice R 1990 pp 117-120 [DEP, DRA, PH, USE]
Samson J 1982 pp 12
Samson J 1986 pp 295-300 [TEXT, FER, DRA, LIG]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 212 [USE, DEP, FER, DRA]
Nagy S 1980 pp 59
IBPGR 1986 pp 23
Lotschert W 1983 pp 227
National AS 1975 pp 63
Hackett C 1982 pp 114 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Martin F 1984 pp 242-244 [TEMP, RAIN, PHO, DRA, FER, PH, USE]
Verheij E 1991 pp 157-161 [USE, TEMP, RAIN, DEP, DRA, TEXT, LIMITS]