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Nair P 1980 pp 315-316 [LIG, RAIN, DRA, USE]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 285 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 26 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Perennial herb, which rotts may be harvested after 2-3 years. Seeds can ripen throughout the year but the main season is the cold weather period.
Java devil pepper, Rauwolfia.
Java devil pepper can grow up to 1 m in height. It is found in hilly areas and on mountain slopes up to 1000 m in elevation. It is best adapted to a well-distributed rainfall. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. Average yield is 2-4 t/ha of air-dried roots per year after the third year.