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Perennial. Trees have reached 1.7 m after 10 years in very harsh environments in northern China.
The tree can be found in northern and northeastern China at elevations between sea level and 4000 m. It occurs on slopes and plains, in areas with drifting sand, where the wind in the spring at time reaches speeds of up to 90 km/h. (pH estimated by the compiler).
Westoby J 1975 pp 22 [TEMP, DEP, FER, TEXT]
Shing T 1992 pp 320 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA]
Liansheng V 1984 pp 29 [USE, TEXT]