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Brassica napus

SynonymsB. napus L. ssp. oleifera (Moench) Metzg., B. napus L. var. oleifera (Moench) Delile (ssp. napus), B. napus L. ssp. napobrassica (L.) O. Schwarz, B. napus L. ssp. napus sensu Hämet-Ahti et al.
Common namesrape, olraps, colza, raapzaad, rypsi, raps, rapsi, oil-seed rape, canola, rutabaga, fodder rape, hungry gap kale, winter oil seed rape, swede rape, Siberian kale, rape seed, swede
Ecocrop code549

DESCRIPTION: A herb, 0.5-2 m tall with a strongly branched stem. Basal leaves of flowering plant stalked, highest leaves sessile and clasping stem. Flowers with 11-15 mm long, pale to bright yellow petals. USES: The seeds are extracted for an oil used especially in margarine and for cooking. Newly bred cultivars with a high content of erucic acid are used for extraction of industrial oil. It is also used as a fodder crop. KILLING T.: Rape is resistant to frost at all stages of growth. Unhardened plants can survive -4°C, while fully-hardened spring type rapeseed can survive -10 to -12°C, and hardened winter rapeseed can survive short periods of exposure to -15 to -20°C. GROWING PERIOD: Annual or biennial herb. Spring cultivars growing 85-160 days, and winter cultivars 160-340 days. COMMON NAMES: Swede rape, Rape, Oil-seed rape, Argentine rape, Colza d'hiver, Colza d'ete. FURTHER INF.: B. napus var. oleifera (winter rape), B. napus var. oleifera subvar. annua (summer rape). Swede rape is native of Europe. It is a temperate crop but it can be grown in the tropics at elevations between 1500-2200 m. Yields of 2-4 t/ha are considered good, while yields of 0.5-2 t/ha are more usual.
Weiss E 183 pp 161-215 [TEMP, KTMP, LIG, RAIN, DRA, PH, SAL, TEXT, FER]
Duke J 1979 pp 99
Roecklein J 1987 pp 350 [USE]
Hartmann T 1981 pp 585
Dube P 1982 pp 10
Rehm S 1991 pp 114
Hackett C 1982 pp 51
Kernick M 1961 pp 348
Janick J 1991 pp 302
Westphal E 1989 pp 61-64 [USE, TEMP, KTMP, PHO, RAIN, DRA, PH, SAL]