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Bixa orellana

AuthorityL.
Family
Synonyms
Common namesannatto, lipstick tree, achiote, urucum, anato, arnato, bija, bijol, bixa, roucou, bixin
Editor
Ecocrop code520



Notes
BRIEF DESCRIPTION An evergreen shrub or small bushy tree, 2-8 m high and up to 30 cm in stem diameter with white and pink flowers and red fruits. Stem color varying from green to red. USES Its seeds cover produce a red dye called annatto, which is used to color butter, oil, butter, margarine, cheese, rice, ice-cream, candy and chocolate. It is also used in the cosmetic production of nail gloss, hair oil, lipstick and soap, in the production of floor wax and furniture and shoe polish and for dying cotton, silk and wool. The tree can be grown as a hedge plant and as an ornamental. It provides firewood, fibre for cordage and gum. Leaves and bark have medicinal properties and the bark can provide fiber. Mentioned as a possible agroforestry species. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. First harvest can be taken after 2 years. Seed yields reach their peak when the trees are 4-5 years of age, usually a decline become evident around 12 years, but productivity can continue for up to 20 years. COMMON NAMES Annatto, Anatto, Arnatto, Bixa, Lipstick tree, Rocouyer, Roucou, Achiote, Achuete, Achote, Apatut, Asute, Janang, Chanang, Sotis, kesumba, Galuga, Jarak belanda, Kunyit jawa, Echuete, Sotis, Cham'-puu, Cham'-puu chraluek, Kh'am, Satii, Somz phuu, Kam tai, Kam set, Dieu nhuom. FURTHER INF Annatto is native of Central America, the Caribbean region and tropical South America. It can be found at elevations between sea level and 2000 m. It may withstand droughts of up to 4 months, but thrives best with well distributed rainfall and a dry season for seed ripening. Seed yields from 0.5-5 t/ha per year have been reported, but usually yields are between 800-1500 kg/ha. From 1 kg of seed 20-50 g of dye can be obtained.
Sources
SOURCES (B. orellana L.)
Williams C 1979a pp 222-223 [RAIN, TEXT, DEP, DRA]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 47 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 8 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Rashid M 1975 pp 156-158 [RAIN, TEXT, DEP, KTMP, USE]
Hensleigh T 1988 pp 69-72 [DRA, DEP, TEXT]
Lemmens R 1991 pp 50-53 [USE, KTMP, LIG, TEXT, PH, DEP, FER]
Green C 1995 pp 5-16 [USE, KTMP, TEMP, RAIN, FER, TEXT, DRA]