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Cola nitida

Authority(Vent.) Schott
Common names
Ecocrop code4755

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small to medium-sized evergreen tree usually up to 10-13 m tall but can reach 20-25 m, with a thunk diameter of 20-30 cm. The trunk has narrow buttresses. The leaves are simple, broadly onlong to broadly elliptic and up to 33 cm x 13 cm. Fruits are up to 7x13 cm. USES Its nuts are chewed as a stimulant, powdered nuts are made into refreshing beverages, or an essentail oil extracted. The nuts contain about 2% caffeine, 9% protein, and 75% carbohydrates. They also contain the glucoside, kolanin, that is used as a heart stimulant. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Require 7 years to first small harvest, 12-15 years for first fair harvest and 20 years for full harvest. The tree has an economical life of 70-100 years. Fruits mature in 120-150 days. In some regions the tree may flower almost all the time, so harvesting is continuous throughout the year, while in South East Africa the flowering periode is from May to July and fruiting October to December. COMMON NAMES Commercial Cola-nut, Gbanja Kola, Kola nut, Bitter-cola nut, Bobe, Dibe, Ebe, Guiti, Oro, Uro, Woro, Goro, Guro, Kuruo, Bese, Bese-pa, Bise, Bise hene, Bisi, Vi, Ehousse, Buesse, Apo, Aure, Na he, Go, Goro, Tohn, We-eh, Mano go, Ajauru, Gorohi, Obi, Obi gbanja, Oji, Tolo, Tui, Kui, Kola, Tutugi, Awase, Awese, Bose, Chigban'bi, Esele. FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms: C. vera, C. acuminata. The plant is native to the lowland forests of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, and Ghana, its natural habitat has pronounced wet and dry seasons and it can be found at elevations between sea level and 300-800 m. It is adapted to hot and humid climates, but can be cultivated in drier areas if grounf water is available. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. Cola-nut can be host of coconut pests. Average yield is about 250 kg nuts per tree annually.
SOURCES (C. nitida (Vert.) Schott & Endl.)
Hackett C 1982 pp 103 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Duke J 1975 pp 12 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 326 [USE]
Purseglove J 1974 pp 566-570 [RAIN, TEXT, DRA, FER, USE]
Nair P 1984 pp 21 [RAIN, TEXT, DEP, DRA, PH, SAL, USE]
Nair P 1980 pp 304-305 [RAIN, TEXT, DRA, FER]
Iwu M 1993 pp 157
FAO For. Paper 67 pp 75
Wickens G 1995 pp 84-85 [USE]