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Cinchona officinalis

Common names
Ecocrop code4565

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small to medium sized evergreen tree reaching 6-20 m in height. Leaves oblong-elliptic, 8-12 x 3.5-6 cm. USES The bark is used as a remedy against malaria, and it is used in anti-malaria medicine. Some drinks, like tonic water, contain small quantities of quinine and have anti-malaria properties. Quinine are also used in products like hair oils and shampoo, sun-tan oil, insecticides, as a vulcanizing agent in the rubber industry, and in the preparation of certain metals. KILLING T Tolerant to below 7°C. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Starts flowering after 3-4 years and are uprooted and harvested after 8-12 years. COMMON NAMES Quinine, Peruvian bark, Chinchona, Quinquina, Kina, Kini:n, Quinin, Ki ninh. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: C. salisaya, C.ledgeriana. Quinine is native of the Andes mountains from Colombia to northern Peru, where it can be found on the misty and humid eastern slopes at elevations between 2000-3000 m. In the tropics, it is productive at 1500-2700 m in altitude. In Kenya, it is grown at 2000-2400 m. It grows very poorly or not at all on soils that have been exposed to fire. Grows best in areas with a high relative humidity. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (C. officinalis L.)
Kernick M 1961 pp 219
Roecklein J 1987 pp 292 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 12 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Williams C 1979a pp 78
Purseglove J 1974 pp 452-458 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DRA, FER, PH, LIMITS]
Nair P 1980 pp 261-264 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Westphal E 1989 pp 83-87 [USE, RAIN, LIG, TEMP, DRA, PH, FER]