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Anacardium occidentale

AuthorityL.
FamilyMagnoliopsida:Rosidae:Sapindales:Anacardiaceae
Synonyms
Common namesmamuang himmaphan, yaruang, mamuang letlor, cashew, cashew nut, acajou á pomme, noix d'acajou, marañon, casho, cashu, cajou, anacardier, caju, acajú, kasjoe, mereke, kaju, apu initia, kesiu, cashewnuss, cashewbaum, jambu mortyet, jambu mede, gajus, jambu monyet, kasoy, balubad, balogo, thiho thayet si, svaay chantii, dao lon hot, cay dieu, nut-cashew
Editor
Ecocrop code401



Notes
BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small to medium-sized evergreen tree reaching a height of 7-10 m and a trunk diameter of 10-25 cm. It require wide spacing. Trunk and branches are crooked. USES Cashew nuts are roasted for human consumption. The nut contain an oil similar to almond oil and is commonly used in chocolate making. The nut shell yields a poisonous oil with medicinal properties. The fruit is eaten fresh or used in jams, candies, and chutneys. Unripe fruits are used in curried vegetables and pickles. Fruit juice is used for wines, vinegar, and juice blends. The tree can be used for shade, hedges, reforestation, sand dune stabilization, and as an ornamental. The wood is used for crates, yokes, boats, firewood, and charcoal. Young leaves and flowers can be eaten in salads. The flowers are a source of honey. Gum of the bark is reported to be a good insecticide. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. GROWING PERIOD Fast-growing perennial. Growing 2-3 years to first bearing. It usually live 15-20 or 25 years, but up to 45 years. Flowering takes 30-60 days from the time of flower initiation, fruit maturation a further 70-130 days, and vegetative growth (wet season), takes place for up to about 260 days, after which the tree enters a period of quiescence. COMMON NAMES Cashew, Cashew nut, Hijali-badam, Kaju, Godambe, Paringi mayu, Lanka-ambo, Mundiri, Jidi-mamidi, Ma-muang-himma-phan, Gajus, Jambu monyet, Kasui, Kasoy, Balubad, Balubar, Batubat, Balubog, Kachui, Kasoi, Sambalguke, Kasing, Bulago, Balogo, Kologo, Balkuge, Sambadute, Kasul, Kosing, Batuban, Pomme cajou, Anacardier, Maranon. FURTHER INF Cashew is indigenous to tropical America probably northeastern Brazil. The tree occur naturally within the latitudinal range of 30°N-25°S. In the tropics the tree can be found at altitudes between sea level and 1200 m where it often is grown on hillsides too dry and too stony for other crops. Photosynthesis pathway C3. Humidity should be high during the period of vegetative growth (65-80%) and lower during flowering. In general the minimum relative humidity should be about 20-25% and the maximum 35-75%. Rainfall during the flowering and harvesting periods may reduce yields. At rainfall below 500 mm the tree is only valuable for timber and firewood. It has been stated that both pigeon pea and castor bean are harmful if grown before cashew on the same land. Yields range from 2 kg/tree for young trees to 45 kg/tree for 15 year old trees. The tree is termite resistant and drought hardy.
Sources
SOURCES (A. occidentale L.)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Samson J 1986 pp 278-282 [DRA, TEXT, RAIN, USE, FER, PH]
Hartmann T 1981 pp 625 [FER, KTMP]
Rice R 1990 pp 70-73 [TEXT, FER, TEMP, RAIN, DRA, PH]
Rehm S 1991 pp 236-238 [RAIN, DRA, USE]
Kozlowski T 1977 pp 464
Roecklein J 1987 pp 323 [USE]
Landon J 1984 pp 280 [TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, FER, SAL]
Eswaran H 1986
Agnoloni M 1977 pp 37
Webb D 1984 pp 104 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, PH, DRA, LIG, KTMP, USE]
Moncur M 1986 [RAIN, TEMP, LIG, DEP, DRA, PH, SAL, TEXT, FER]
Hackett C 1982 pp 111 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Popenoe W 1974 pp 146
Argles G 1976 pp 184
Purseglove J 1974 pp 19-23 [DRA, KTMP, RAIN, TEXT]
Woodroof J 1979 pp 219-231 [KTMP, TEXT, RAIN, DRA]
Joshi H 1980a pp 288-293 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DRA, PH, LIG]
Nair P 1984 pp 19 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DEP, DRA, USE]
Duke J 1982 pp 14
Van Waveren E 1993 pp 57
INSPIRE species 22 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, PH, DRA, LIG, KTMP, USE]
Voortman R (pers. comm.)
OMM 1991 pp 7-9
IBPGR 1981 pp 14-15