|DESCRIPTION: It is a relatively slow growing large coniferous tree reaching 45-55 m in height and (1-2 m) dbh, but may grow larger. It may reach ages of 300-400 years. Bark on young trunks is smooth, gray and blistered with resin vesicles, becoming thick, hard and deeply furrowed into scaly ridges with age. It has a narrow, cylindrical, almost spire-like to slightly broader crown. The branches are short and stout, with leaves 3-7 cm long and generally curved upward. The rooting habit is usually fairly shallow. USE: The wood is used extensively for solid construction framing and plywood, and to a lesser extent, for pulpwood. It is not a good firewood but is used as such anyway. The tree is a good soil stabilizer and may be particularly useful on roadcuts. It is a valuable ornamental tree. It is often used for ornamental plantings in rural and urban landscapes in northern U.S. cities, because it is attractive and frost-hardy. It is not, however, very tolerant of air pollution and therefore seems best suited for suburbs or rural areas. It is used extensively in the Christmas tree industry. Native Americans used the needles for tea. GROWING PERIOD: Perennial. COMMON NAMES: white fir, California white fir, Rocky Mountain white fir. Synonyms: Abies lowiana (Gordon) A. Murray. FURTHER INF: Its native range extends from the mountainous regions of the Pacific coast to central Colorado, and from central Oregon and south-eastern Idaho to northern Mexico. The upper latitudinal limit may coincide with a mean maximum January temperature of about -1°C. It is sensitive to both frost damage and, occasionally sun scald. It grows from canyon bottoms and ravines up to ridgetops on gentle, moderate, and steep slopes of all aspects. It develops best on gentle slopes and level ground. It is tolerant of a wide range of soil conditions, nutrient availability and pH values.