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Eugenia aromatica

Authority(L.) Baill.
SynonymsSyzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb., Eugenia caryophyllus (Sprengel) Bullock & Harr.
Common namescloves, clove, tropical myrtle, clavo, girofle, clous de giroffle, clou de girofle, giroffles, giroflier, clavos de especial, clavero, cenkeh, lay-hnyin, khan phluu, kaanz phuu, kan phlu, dinh huong, Gewürznelke, Gewürznägelein, Kreidenelke, Nelke, Nägelein, kryddnejlika, krydder nelliker, qaranful, kruidnagel, garofano, chiodi di garofano, cravo, cvozdika, choji, ting-hsiang, karanfil
Ecocrop code2462

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A slender, evergreen tree, 10-20 m tall, conical when young, later becomming cylindrical, in cultivation usually smaller than when found growing wild. Root system dense and close to the surface. Leaves obovate-oblong to elliptic, 6-13 x 3-6 cm. The flower buds 1-2 cm long and the fruit a berry, 2-2.5 cm long and dark red. USES The clove (the flower bud) is used as a spice and in the production of 'kretek' cigarettes, which are smoked in Indonesia. When used as a spice, the dried cloves are added to the food as such or after grinding, or the oleoresin is extracted to standardize the flavor. The clove and the mother of clove (the fruit) are used for there medicinal properties. Distillation of cloves yields an oil that is used in the flavouring and perfume industry. A lesser quality oil is distilled from the flower stalks and from the leaves. A major componet of this oil is phenol eugenol, used in soaps, detergents, toothpaste and pharmaceutical products. The timber is hard heavy and durable, but has a dull greyish colour. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. First harvest may be taken after 6-9 years, the tree come into full bearing after 20 years and it has an economical life of 60-100 years. COMMON NAMES Clove, Clou de girafle, Giroflier, Clou de girofle, Cravoda India, Clavero girofle, Cenkeh, Lay-hnyin, Khan phluu, Kaanz phuu, Kan phlu, Dinh huong, Karanfal, Benefundi, Kanumfari, Karanho, Kade, Osaragbogo-eze, Karafwu, Konofuru. FURTHER INF Scientific synonyms; E. caryophyllus, E. caryophyllata, Syzygium aromaticum, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Jambosa caryophyllus. Clove is probably native of the Moluccas in eastern Indonesia. It thrive best in the tropics in insular, maritime climates at altitudes from sea level to 300-600 m, but be found at elevations up to 900 m. A climate with a marked dry season promotes flowering, but the tree does not cope well with water stress. Cloves for 'kretek' cigarette production are said to require 3 months with less than 60 mm rainfall each, while cloves to be used as spice, should have no months with less than 80 mm of rainfall. Some drier weather is desirable for harvesting and drying of the crop. It is often planted on sloping land to ensure good drainage. Shade in the early stages are desirable. High winds can be harmfull. Each tree may yield about 1-12 kg of cloves per year and the production is variable. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (E. aromatica Kuntze)
Roecklein J 1987 pp 385 [USE]
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Duke J 1975 pp 28 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Purseglove J 1981 pp 229-285 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, LIG]
Williams C 1979a pp 226-227 [RAIN, DRA, FER, DEP, TEXT]
Nair P 1980 pp 231-234 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, PH, FER, DRA, USE]
Purseglove J 1974 pp 401-409 [RAIN, TEMP, DEP, TEXT, PH, DRA, LIG, LIMIT]
Westphal E 1989 pp 257-263 [USE, RAIN, DEP, FER, LIG, TEMP, LIMIT, PH, DRA]
Iwu M 1993 pp 246 [USE]