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Pistacia vera

AuthorityL.
FamilyMagnoliopsida:Rosidae:Sapindales:Anacardiaceae
Synonyms
Common namesPistachio nut, green almond, pistache, pistachier, pistachio, pistacio, alfostico, alfostigueiro
Editor
Ecocrop code2386



Notes
BRIEF DESCRIPTION A small deciduous tree reaching a height of about 6-10 m. The leaves are pinnate, leathery and with 3-7 leaflets. The fruit is a narrowly ovoid to oblong or subglobose, one-seeded drupe, 1-2 cm x 0.6-1.2 cm, with a light green kernel. USES The tree produces edible nuts used in the food industry as flavoring and colouring for cakes, ice cream, snack foods and certain confections. Oil from the fruit has medicinal properties. The wood can be used for small items like agricultural tools, spoons, etc. Resin tapped from the stems is used in high quality paints, nitro-lacquers and also has medicinal properties. Galls and fruit pericarp is employed to dye silk. KILLING T Can survive winter temperatures down to -10 to-18°C. GROWING PERIOD Perennial, growing 4-5 years before first bearing, 7-10 years to reach commercial production and peaking at about 20 years. The tree can live for several hundred years, 700 years have been recorded. COMMON NAMES Pistachio nut, Fustuq, Pistachio, Pista, Piste, Fistashka. FURTHER INF Pistachio nut is a native of western Asia. It require low to medium humidity and needs a period of 1000 hours below 7.5°C in the winter to break the rest period of the buds. In Iran and Syria, it can be grown up to about 1200 m in elevation. Pistachio can withstand a very dry air, but excessive dampness and high humidity is unfavorable to its development. It is grown in regions with a hot dry season with daily mean temperatures of 30°C for 3 months. Yields alternate with a heavy crop followed by lighter crop in the next year. A 4-5 year old tree may yield about 23 kg of nuts.
Sources
SOURCES (Pistacia vera L.)
Roecklein 1987 pp 331 [USE, DEP, DRA, FER]
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Woodroof J 1979 pp 572-603 [USE, TEXT, DRA, PH, DEP, RAIN, TEMP]
Duke J 1975 pp 24 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Hackett C 1982 pp 129 [FER, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Hartmann T 1981 pp 618-619 [KTMP, TEXT, DEP, DRA, SAL, PH]
Wickens G 1995 pp 16-18 [USE, TEMP, DRA, FER, KTMP, LIMIT]