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Sesamum indicum

Common namessesame, ajonjoli, sesamo, zhima, gergelim, til, sesam, simsim, kunzhut, goma, hu-ma, selit
Ecocrop code1937

BRIEF DESCRIPTION A variable, erect, herbaceous, indeterminate plant reching 1-3 m in height. It has hairy leaves and tubular flowers, white or pink with purplish-red spots. The capsules are erect, 5 cm long and awl-shaped and the seeds are about 3-4 mm long, 2 mm broad and 1 mm thick. USES The seeds are edible, they can be fried and eaten in soups, mixed with sugar as a sweet, or used in or on bread, cakes and pastry. The seeds are extracted for an oil used in margarines, soaps, paints, salad dressings, cooking oils, as an aromatic lamp oil, as a carrier for pharmaceuticals and perfume, and as a synergist for pyrethin insecticide sprays. The expressed seed cakes can be fed to livestock and are sometimes also used for human consumption. Young leaves are used as a soup vegetable. Various parts of the plant have medicinal porperties. The stems are burnt as fuel. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species. GROWING PERIOD Annual, maturing in 40-180 days. Most cultivars mature in 80-100 days, while some require 100-180 days. COMMON NAMES Sesame seed, Sesamo, Sesam, Sesame, Sesamier, Simsim, Benniseed, Benue oil seed, Bebefin, Bene, Ridi, Beme, Poeuloel, Molekelele, Ufuta, Yanmoti, Gingelly, Til. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: S. orientale, S. alatum, S capense, S. sabulosum. Sesame's main distribution is between 25°S and 25°N, but it can be found up to 40°N and 35°S. In East Africa, sesame is normally grown at elevations between sea level and 1500 m, but it can be found up to 1800 m and in the Himalays up to 2000 m. The species is probably indigenous to Ethiopia. Sesame is susceptible to wind damage after the main stem has elongated and high relative humidity or heavy rains may increase the incidense of fungal diseases. The average yield of sesame seed in the world is about 350 kg/ha but yields can be up to 3.0 t/ha.
SOURCES (S. indicum L.)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Maas E 1990 pp 271
Rehm S 1991 pp 103-105 [RAIN, FER, PHO]
Kassam A 1976 pp 103
Landon J 1984 pp 281 [TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, FER, SAL]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 351 [USE]
Eswaran H 1986
Kung P 1970 pp 212
Nair P 1980 pp 185-187 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Onwueme I 1991 pp 344-348 [TEMP, LIG, TEMP, RAIN, DRA, DEP, FER]
Purseglove J 1974 pp 430-435 [RAIN, DRA, FER, TEXT, PHO]
Weiss E 1983 pp 282-340 [TEXT, PHO, TEMP, PH, DRA, RAIN, LIMIT, FER, DEP, SAL]
Lovett J 1979 pp 271-273 [USE, TEMP, KTMP, PHO, LIMIT]
Martin F 1984 pp 84-90 [TEMP, RAIN, PHO, DRA, FER, TEXT, PH, SAL, USE]
Iwu M 1993 pp 237 [USE]