|BRIEF DESCRIPTION A tall evergreen tree reaching 40-50 m in height with a straight bole up to 1/2 of the tree height, sometimes slightly fluted at the base, up to 150-220 cm in diameter. The trunk has many small, rounded buttresses that give the base and elephant-foot like appearance. Leaves, simple, leathery, elliptical to ovate, 14-18 x 5-11 cm. USES The timber is heavy and durable, often used for marine constructions such as pilings, wharfs, docs, sluices, dams, ships, bridges, but also used for power line poles, masts, roof shingles and house posts and to a minor extend as frame, board, heavy duty flooring, railway sleepers, fencing material, furniture etc. The fruits are poisonous but have medicinal properties. GROWING PERIOD Slow-growing perennial. COMMON NAMES Ulin ironwood, Billian, Bilian, Bois de fer, Belian, Tambulian, Im muk, Onglen, Tulian, Tebelian, Sakian, Biliran. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: Bihania borneensis. Ironwood occurs eastern and southern Sumatra, Bangka, Belitung, Borneo and the Sulu archipelago and Palawan. Seedlings require some shade, while older trees need plenty of light. It can be found in valleys and on hillsides and even on low ridges when soil moisture is sufficient at elevations between sea level and 625 m. The standing timber volume of trees with a diameter of over 50 cm may be as much as 90-112 m3. (pH and temperature estimated by the compiler).