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Piper nigrum

AuthorityL.
FamilyMagnoliopsida:Magnoliidae:Piperales:Piperaceae
Synonyms
Common namesblack pepper, Madagascar pepper, pepper, pimienta, poivre, pfeffer, pimenta preta, pimenta do reino, peppar, filfil aswad, peper, pepe, pimenta, pyerets, kasho, hu-vhiao
Editor
Ecocrop code1714



Notes
BRIEF DESCRIPTION A vine or woody climber up to 10 m long. Under the best cultivation the mature vine has a bushy columnar appearance, 4 m high and 1.5 m in diameter. The root system may be as deep as 4 m or more. Leaves simple, glabrous, ovate, 8-20 x 4-12 cm. Fruits globose drupes, 4-6 mm in diameter, red when mature. USES Black pepper is produced from the dried fruit and white pepper is made from fruits that have been soaked and the mesocarp removed. Pepper is used as a spice and as a stimulative on the digestive organs. An essential oil is distilled from the fruit and used in perfumery. GROWING PERIOD Perennial. Begins to bear in 3-4 years, reach full production after 7 years and with an economical life of about 12-20 years. The periode from flowering to harvest is about 180-240 days. COMMON NAMES Black pepper, White pepper, Pepper, Poivre noir, Pimienta negra, Filfil aswad, Hu-chiao, Peper, Poivre, Pfeffer, Pepe, Kosho, Pimenta, Pyerets, Pimienta, Peppar, Kali mirch, Kala morich, Golmorich, Kalamari, Kalomirich, Kare menasu, Marutis, Kurumalaku, nallamulaku, Mira, Gol-maricha, Marich ushana, Hapusha, Milagu, Miriyala tige, Siah mirch. FURTHER INF Pepper is native of the Western Ghats in India. In India pepper can be grown up to 2000 m in elevation, but best results are obtained at altitudes below 500 m. It can be cultivated successfully at latitudes between 20°S and 20°N, but most production takes place close to the Equator. It require a hot and humid climate and thrives with a relative humidity between 65-95%. Level ground is most suitable for the production of pepper, provided there is no flooding, but it is often grown in rolling country or on hill slopes of varying stepness. Optimum yields at low capital input are 6 t/ha unprocessed (green) pepper, or 2 t/ha sundried (black) pepper, or 1.67 t/ha washed and dried (white) pepper. In gardens with higher inputs yields may be 8-9 t/ha of green peper in the first harvest and 12-20 t/ha in the sixth or seventh harvest. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
Sources
SOURCES (P. nigrum L.)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Eswaran H 1986
Duke J 1979
Roecklein J 1987 pp 398 [USE]
Hackett C 1982 pp 78 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Purseglove J 1981 pp 10-99 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DRA, FER, PH] Williams C 1979a pp 218-222 [RAIN, DRA, FER]
Purseglove J 1974 pp 441-450 [RAIN, DRA, TEXT, FER, PH]
Nair P 1980 pp 241-246 [RAIN, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Pruthi J 1993 pp 44-113
Hockings E 1961b pp 322-323 [DRA, TEXT, TEMP, RAIN, USE]
Westphal E 1989 pp 225-230 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, DEP, DRA, FER, PH]