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Temperature: Seeds germinate well at temperatures around 20-22°C. The plant tolerates hot conditions but will withstand winter temperatures down to -30°C.
Water: It tolerates humid conditions and requires moderate, well distributed rainfall or watering. Reported annual rainfall range for growth is 300-1000 mm with the optimum between 400-800 mm.
Range & intensity: Full sunlight under irrigated cultivation conditions for high production. The plant can however also grow in light shade but may grow taller and lankier as a result.
Photoperiodism: It is intermediate-day plant.
Physical: It can grow in any well drained, ordinary soil but prosper in sandy loams with a good content of compost.
Chemical: Prefers limey, fertile soils rich in phosphate but can also grow in infertile soils. Reported soil pH range for growth is 5.5-8 with the optimum between 6.5-7.5.