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Manihot esculenta

AuthorityCrantz
FamilyMagnoliopsida:Dilleniidae:Euphorbiales:Euphorbiaceae
SynonymsManihot utilissima Pohl, Janipha manihot (L.) Kunth, Jatropha manihot L., Manihot aipi Pohl, Manihot dulcis (J. F. Gmelin) Pax, Manihot manihot (L.) Cockerell, Manihot melanobasis Muell. Arg.
Common namescassava, tapioca plant, manihot, manioc, maniok, cassave, mandioca, macaxeira (sweet varieties), yuca, aipim (Brazil), mushu, tapioka, pondu, saka-saka, yautia
Editor
Ecocrop code1420



Notes
DESCRIPTION: An erect shrub with an upright woody stems reaching a height of 4 m or more. The mature tuber may measure 1 m in length and weigh up to 2 kg. The cassava plant may be divided into two main parts: the shoot system, which consists of stem, leaves and reproductive structures or flowers; and the root system, which consists of feeder roots and tubers. The fleshy elongated tuberous roots or rhizomes, are very woody, only slightly thickened in wild varieties; under cultivation up to 2.5 m long and 10-15 cm in diameter, weighing up to 40 kg, averaging 4-7 kg; leaves usually deeply 3-7-parted with spatulate to linear-lanceolate acuminate lobes 7.5-15 cm long, glabrous, glaucous beneath and minutely puberulent along veins, long petioled; flowers in panicles, less than 1.2 cm long; capsules globose, about 1.2 cm across, with 6 winged angles; seeds 3 per capsule. USES: Cassava provides a major source of calories for poor families, because of its high starch content. With minimum maintenance, the farmers can dig up the starchy root of the cassava and eat it 6 months to 3 years after planting. Thus, people can cultivate cassava during times of conflict or natural disaster when no other food is available. The tubers have a high content of carbohydrates, phosphorous, iron, and calcium and are a valuable source of food. Cassava starch is used in cooking and cassava flour is used in puddings, biscuits and other confectionary. In Africa, people also eat the leaves of the cassava as a green vegetable, which provide a cheap and rich source of protein and vitamins A and B. (Young leaves are cooked like spinach). Various industries use it as a binding agent, because it is an inexpensive source of starch. Cassava starch is used in the production of paper and textiles and as monosodium glutamate (MSG), an important flavoring agent in Asian cooking. In Africa, cassava is beginning to be used in partial substitution for wheat flour, thus providing income to resource-poor farmers and saving foreign exchange for national Governments. The plant is also used in the production of adhesives, cosmetics, textiles, and paper. It is fed to livestock. Alcoholic beverages and ethanol for fuel are made from the tubers. The advantage of cassava for ethanol production is that the tubers may be stored in the ground for many months before processing; thus extending the factory window. KILLING T.: May not tolerate 7°C for prolonged periods and it is easily killed by frost. GROWING PERIOD: Short-lived perennial. Mature leaves may be harvested 50-70 days from insertion of the cuttings. The 'sweet' cassavas mature in 180-270 days, the 'bitter' in 12-18 months. Growing period 6-24 months, depending on cultivar and conditions. COMMON NAMES: Cassava, Manihot, Manioc, Tapioca, Guacomote Yuca, Cassave, Kelala, Marachini, Maravalli, Simul Alu, Ubi Singkong, Mangahazo, Ubi Kayu, Mun Sumpalung, Boodin, Kaspe, Katela, Bodin, Obi Kajoe, Poohoong Kahoy, Kamoteng, Tentu Neskok, Muk Shue, Pok Fung, Cassada, Aipi, Aipim Ubi, Ketalla, Macaxiera, Mandioca, Manoco, Ramu, Yautia. FUTHER INF.: Cassava is seldom grown above 1800 m in elevation in the tropics, maximum elevation for successfull cultivation is about 1000 m. Latitudinal range is 25°N to 30°S. Maximum tolerated slope is about 5°. The photosynthesis pathway is C3 II. Prefers moderate humidity. Tuber production is delayed and reduced in daylengths greater than 10-12 hours. Cassava is native to the countries between the Amazon region and southern Mexico. World production for 2004 was estimated at 204819995 metric tons. Production in Asia during the same period was 60492789 metric tons and in Africa 108974574. Area harvested in 2004: World 18051574 hectares Brazil 1754875 Congo 1842559 Indonesia 1255805 Nigeria 3531000 and Mozambique 1068500 hectares. Yields from small holders average 5-15 t/ha, but yields of up to 30 t/ha can be obtained. Scientists at two CGIAR research centers IITA and CIAT have developed elite varieties of cassava with improved qualities. IITA has discovered spontaneous polyploids in cassava, which are characterized by enormous vigor and variation in form and structure. Selections from triploids "super cassava" have doubled the yields of existing improved varieties with normal chromosome numbers. IITA has also introduced to Africa a wider genetic base for cassava improvement, focusing on materials with resistance to mites, mealybugs, cassava bacterial blight, tolerance to drought, low cyanogen potential, and good cooking quality. Together, IITA and CIAT launched a biological control campaign of the mealybug and are cooperating with the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in the formulation of a global development strategy for cassava.
Sources
Purdue NewCrop
CGIAR Cassava
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Rehm S 1991 pp 41-45 [USE, TEMP, RAIN, LIG, PHO, TEXT, DEP, FER]
Kassam A 1976 pp 53
Sys C 1984 pp 70
Rice R 1990 pp 221-223 [TEXT, PH, DRA, TEMP, RAIN]
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Landon J 1984 pp 281 [TEXT, DRA, PH, FER]
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Eswaran H 1986
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Kung P 1970 pp 210
Hackett C 1982 pp 91 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Nair P 1980 pp 99-102 [RAIN, KTMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, SAL, USE]
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Shu Fukai 1985 [USE, RAIN, TEMP, LIG, DEP, DRA, PH, SAL, TEXT, FER]