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|It succeeds best in tropical and subtropical regions. It can be grown as a summer crop in temperate regions. The fruits will not ripen, but the herbage is usable.
Latitude: It is a tropical and sub-tropical crop normally limited to latitudes between 35°N and 25°S.
Altitude: Sea-level up to 900 m.
Temperature: It is very sensitive to frost. Reported temperature range for growth is 10-36°Cwith the optimum between 16-32°C.
Water: Reported annual rainfall range for growth is 500-3500 mm with the optimum between 1000-3000 mm. Some cultivars give satisfactory yields in wet humid regions although most are partially drought resistant. A relative air humidity of about 70-85% during the growing
period is best. Tolerates a warmer and more humid climate than kenaf, but is more susceptible to damage from frost and fog. Where rainfall is inadequate, irrigation has given good results.
Range & intensity: It thrives in full sun light and is not shade tolerant.
Photoperiodism: It is a short-day plant and unlike kenaf, it cannot be grown successively throughout the year. It requires 12-12.5 hours day-length for flowering and fruit production. In United States plants do not flower until short days of late fall or early winter. If flowering is not necessary as for fibre production, long light days for 3-4 months is the critical factor.
Physical: It requires a permeable soil, a friable sandy loam with humus being preferable; however, it will adapt to a variety of soils. It will not tolerate floods or stagnant water.
Chemical: Reported soil pH range for growth is 4.5-8.5 with the optimum between 5.5-7.5. It prefers a fertile to moderately fertile non-saline soil.