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Hevea brasiliensis

Common namesrubber, caucho, seringueira, gummi træ, cây cao su, mpira
Ecocrop code1212

A fast-growing medium sized to tall evergreen or deciduous tree. It is rarely exceeding 25 m in height in plantations, but wild trees over 40 m have been recorded. USES It is the source of natural rubber used mainly in tire production. The seeds contain a semi-drying oil that is extracted and used in soaps. The seeds also contain linamarin and linase. KILLING T Some varieties will not tolerate -1°C and others not 4 to 5°C. GROWING PERIOD
Perennial. The tree begin to produce seeds after about 5-6 years, come into full seed production within 6-10 years and the economic life is 25-35 years but in the wild state the tree may live 100-200 years. Fruits ripen 150-180 days after fertilization. Tapping can begin at 6-7 years and trees are often tapped for 180 days and then rested for 90 days, usually during 'wintering' or heavy rains. It can tolerate 2-3 months of drought in some areas, but a dry period of 1 months or more may cause partial or complete leaf fall. COMMON NAMES Rubber, Para rubber, Natural rubber, Karet, Caoutchouc, Caucho, Getah asli, Kausuu, Jaang, Yang phara, Cao su. FURTHER INF Rubber is indigenous to the tropical rainforests of Brazil. It can be grown at altitudes from sea level to 600 m, but it performs best below 200 m, and most rubber is grown between 15°N and 10°S. Gently sloping and rolling terrain with minimal oil erosion (<8° slope) is desirable. Photosynthesis pathway C 3. It is best adapted to moderately humid to humid conditions, and during dry seasons the tree may shed all of its leaves. Temporary waterlogging with flowing water causes littke damage. Strong winds can be harmful. Average yield of dry rubber is 300-400 kg/ha, optimum yield is 2 t/ha in the fifth year. Mentioned as a useful agroforestry species.
SOURCES (H. brasiliensis (Willd, ex Adr. de Juss) Muell Arg)
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Landon J 1984 pp 282 285 290 303 [TEXT, DRA, DEP, PH, FER, SAL]
Bunting E 1881 pp 49
Roecklein J 1987 pp 266 [USE]
Rehm S 1991 pp 362-368 [TEMP, RAIN, DEP, PH, DRA]
Kozlowski T 1977 pp 319
Williams C 1979 pp 126-145 [RAIN, TEXT, DEP, PH]
Kung P 1970 pp 214
Purseglove J 1974 pp 146-171 [TEMP, RAIN, DRA, TEXT, PH, DEP]
Kernick M 1961 pp 394
Troup R 1921 pp 850
Nair P 1980 pp 269-275 [RAIN, TEMP, TEXT, FER, DRA, USE]
Onwueme I 1991 pp 456-461 [TEMP, RAIN, TEXT, DEP, DRA, PH]
Zabala N 1990 pp 161-163 [TEMP, RAIN, FER, TEXT, DEP, DRA, PH, LIG, USE]
Westphal E 1989 pp 152-161 [USE, TEMP, RAIN, DRA, LIMIT, DEP, TEXT, FER]