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Helianthus tuberosus

AuthorityL.
FamilyMagnoliopsida:Asteridae:Asterales:Compositae
Synonyms
Common namesJerusalem artichoke, earth apple, sunchoke, topinambour, girasole, tupinambo, giganteia, girassol batateiro
Editor
Ecocrop code1193



Notes
BRIEF DESCRIPTION Resembles a sunflower with tuberous roots. The tubers are about 10-20 cm long and the skin may be white or red. The plant can reach a height of up to 1-3 m. USES Grown for its edible tubers, which contain about 8-18% carbohydrates, mainly inulin. Inulin starch is one of the few types of carbohydrates tolerated by diabetics. The tubers are eaten as vegetables, used for livestock feed, as a source of fructose and for the preparation of 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural, industrial alcohol, and a beerlike beverage. GROWING PERIOD Perennial, normally grown as an annual. Can be harvested after 80-150 days when the tubers are still tender. COMMON NAMES Jerusalem artichoke, Sunroot, Girasole, Topinambour, Alcochofa de Jerusalem, Aguaturma, Erd topinambur, Erdartischocke, Aardpeer, Hatichuk, Hatipick, Cotufa, Brahmokha, Kiku-imo. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: H. tuberosus v fusiformis. The jerusalem artichoke is native of North America. Altitudes in the tropics between 500-3600 m are suitable for satisfactory production. Excessive rain may reduce growth and rot the tubers. Yields of 12-25 t/ha are normal, and 30-40 t/ha have been recorded.
Sources
SOURCES (H. tuberosus L.)
Tindall H 1983 pp 86-88 [TEXT, FER, TEMP, RAIN, PHO]
Roecklein J 1987 pp 466 [USE, LIMIT, TEXT, DRA, FER]
Duke J 1975 pp 17 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Sims D (pers. comm.)
Purseglove J 1974 pp 68 [USE]
Rice R 1990 pp 294-295 [TEXT, DRA, FER, TEMP, RAIN]
Hockings E 1961b pp 421 [FER, RAIN, DRA, TEXT]